The rise of the Islamic militant group Islamic State signified a nosedive for the Middle East's tourism economy except in the regions of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Attacks in European countries including Paris, France and Munich, Germany have also deteriorated tourism in the region. Severely affected is Turkey with its recent nightclub attack and the dwindling tourism in Egypt -- before, a powerhouse of tourism -- given the lack of management of heritage sites.

The Mastercard 2016 Global Destination Cities Index indicates that the series of attacks in Paris in 2015 and 2016 have turned many international tourists to Dubai, UAE and even Bangkok. Egypt's Russian and UK visitors have less frequented the country with only 5 percent of visitors coming from the two countries in 2016 compared to being 40 percent of Egypt's total number of tourists in 2014.

According to The Daily Mail, Egypt is facing a "shaky economy following years of (civil) unrest" and is currently facing a struggle to "preserve its fabled archeological heritage." The news website cites Archeologist and Former Antiquities Minister Zahi Hawass who said the country's heritage suffered immensely as insufficient revenue to keep 38,000 individuals who maintain the heritage sites including the ancient pyramids and tombs.

Turkey's nightclub attack -- claimed by the Islamic State -- has triggered a mass exodus of foreign nationals after respective governments of their countries called for them to stay vigilant or take the next flight back to their country. According to CNN Money, Turkey was one of the world's most popular tourism spot in 2014. The news website said a failed coup and Islamic State attacks had tourist visitor population drop by 21% in 2016.

The news website cited ForwardKeys CEO Olivier Jager's statement that Turkey's New Year's Eve nightclub attack will "fuel concerns about the safety of the [country]." The travel company's data showed Istanbul and Turkey bookings have fallen by 69% after the June 2016 Istanbul Airport bombing.