Pamukkale, which literally means "cotton castle" in Turkish, are a set of stunning calcium cliff bathing pools overlooking the town of Pamukkale. The pools are actually called the Travertines of Pamukkale and are a UNESCO World Heritage site.
The travertines originated because of the shifting of a fault in the valley of the Menderes river. As the fault shifted, hot springs with high mineral content, arose in the location of the pools. The minerals in it such as calcium and hydrogen carbonate react to create calcium carbonate, or travertine, and limestone. This is what gives the pools a white, magical appearance.
UNESCO's website states, "This site is exceptional by vurtue of its superlative natural phenomena - warm, heavily mineralized water flowing from springs creating pools and terraces which are visually stunning. It is on this outstanding natural site that Hierapolis, an exceptional example of a Graeco-Roman thermal installation, was established. The Christian monuments of Hierapolis constitute an outstanding example of an early Christian architectural complex."
Pamukkale are located in Turkey's Inner Aegean region on top of the ruins of Hierapolis which is a Byzantine and Greco-roman city that stands on top of Pamukkale.
The hot springs were used as natural hot springs beginning in the 2nd century BCE. A main attraction is the "Sacred Pool" which guests can still swim in for free.
The nearest city is Denizli and the closest airport to Pamukkale is Denizli - Cardak Airport and is about one hour away. There are flights twice a day to and from Istanbul.
Izmir Adnan Menderes Airport is about a four hour drive from Pamukkale as another alternative.
By Train the nearest station is Denizli which has services from Izmir.
Bus services can be found from almost any city in Turkey. Most bus services will take you to Denizli and then there is a free minibus to Pamukkale.